Radiation Environment and Medicine Vo.10 No.1
- Publisher : Hirosaki University Press
- Language : English
- ISSN : 2423-9097 (PRINT) (PRINT), 2432-163X (ONLINE) (ONLINE)
- Release : February 2021
- Issue : Hirosaki University Press
On the Occasion of the Publication of a New Journal
“Radiation Environment and Medicine”
I am privileged with the honor of sending my short message on the occasion of the publication by Hirosaki University Press of a new journal “Radiation Environment and Medicine”. This journal was previously published under the other title, “Radiation Emergency Medicine”, from 2012 through 2015 concurrently with the inauguration of the program to foster human resources in radiation emergency medicine that was approved by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan in 2010. This success is greatly indebted to the enthusiasm of the then President of Hirosaki University, Dr. Masahiko Endo, who firmly believed the necessity of establishing a stronghold on radiation emergency medicine in the northern region of Japan.
Having been launched by the Ex-President Dr. Masahiko Endo and continuously supported by the present President Dr. Kei Sato, the program has been run steadily by efforts of faculty members and students of Hirosaki University. Thereby, the publication of the journal overcame start-up problems and recently the Editorial Board discussed how to further upgrade the journal. In order to invite more submissions of papers, the Editorial Board decided to broaden the scope of the journal by incorporating “radiation environmental issues”. Thus, the journal wasrelabeled as “Radiation Environment and Medicine.”
I sincerely hope that not only domestic but also world-wide researchers in the related fields will contribute their scientific outcomes to the new journal.
Akihiro Shima, Ph.D.
Professor Emeritus, The University of Tokyo
Ex-Member of the External Evaluation Board of the Program
Hirosaki University has issued Radiation Emergency Medicine (REM) since 2012. An educational program for professionals in Radiation Emergency Medicine was initiated in 2010, and our prompt response to the Fukushima nuclear accident which occurred in 2011 motivated the publication of this journal. Many prestigious scientists from not only Japan, but also foreign countries have contributed to REM thus far.
In addition, the inaugural symposium was held in February 2012, with a focus on natural radiation exposures and low-dose radiation epidemiological studies (NARE2012). The symposium attracted more than 150 participants from 30 countries. Additionally, the ninth symposium in the series of international symposia on Natural Radiation Environment (NRE9), which commenced in the 1960s, was held in September 2014. A special session on the Fukushima nuclear accident was also included in the symposium. Approximately 200 participants from 35 countries attended NRE9. According to these two large symposia, many scientists in the world now recognize Hirosaki University as one of the prominent Japanese institutions, whose faculty conduct research on a wide spectrum of radiation topics.
Last August (2015), the Nuclear Regulation Authority designated Hirosaki University as having two important centers which cover radiation emergency medicine and radiation emergency medical assistance. In addition to these domestic situations, there have been recent developments worldwide in the area of natural radiation exposures and their control. For instance, the World Health Organization (WHO) released a handbook on indoor radon in 2009, and more recently the European Radon Association was formed to address the health burden due to indoor radon in Europe. It is of interest to note that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) released a revised version of the Basic Safety Standards (BSS), which includes protection of the public against indoor exposure to radon and other natural sources of radiation last May (2015) .
From such international circumstances, many articles concerning environmental radiation and radioactivity, including natural radiation exposure studies, have been published in Radiation Emergency Medicine. Therefore, the editorial board elected to change the journal name to Radiation Environment and Medicine as the continuation of Radiation Emergency Medicine from the publication of Volume 5. The scope of the journal now widely covers not only medical issues including radiation emergency medicine, but also environmental issues.
On behalf of the editorial board, we welcome your submission to the new REM.
Shinji Tokonami, Ph.D.
Radiation Environment and Medicine
Radioprotective/Mitigative Ef fects of Thrombopoietin Receptor Agonists
Since the discovery of X-rays in 1895, radiation has been widely used in medicine and industry, but its biological effects on health have also been a problem. A group of researchers in the United States discovered in 1948 that large doses of cysteine administered prior to radiation exposure could protect mice exposed to whole-body X-rays from radiation damage. Around the same time, a group in Belgium also reported a similar effect on cysteamine, a breakdown product of cysteine. Currently, the International Atomic Energy Agency recommends either granulocyte colonystimulating factor (G-CSF) or granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for acute radiation syndrome (ARS) due to moderate to severe exposure of 2 – 6 Gy and interleukin-3 in combination with G-CSF, GM-CSF, erythropoietin and thrombopoietin (TPO) for more severe or lethal doses ( >6 Gy). In addition, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved G-CSF, pegylated-CSF, and GM-CSF for hematopoietic ARS. There have been many reports on the radioprotective/mitigative agents, and several excellent reviews have been published. This review focuses on TPO and its receptor agonists, which are expected to be utilized in the future, and outlines the process from its discovery to its approval as a pharmaceutical drug, action, and future prospects.
Estimation of Annual Effective Dose in Namie Town, Fukushima Prefecture due to Inhalation of Radon and Thoron Progeny
Since Fukushima nuclear accident occurred in 2011, the Japanese government has aimed at reducing the annual effective dose due to high radiation exposure in contaminated areas. Not only the external exposure but also the internal exposure need to be considered for the estimation of the effective dose. In the worldwide average, the effective dose due to radon and thoron by inhalation is estimated to be around 50% from the exposure to natural radiation sources. In the present work, radon, thoron, and thoron progeny measurements have been carried out in 93 dwellings of Namie Town, Fukushima Prefecture. The three-successive-month measurement was conducted for four periods from 2017 to 2019 using a passive type radon-thoron discriminative monitor and a thoron progeny monitor to obtain their activity concentrations and equilibrium equivalent concentration and subsequently to calculate the effective dose. The results showed the method of annual indoor radon activity concentration and thoron progeny concentration to be 31 Bq m-3 and 0.7 Bq m-3, respectively. The annual effective doses due to inhalation of radon and thoron progeny using the latest dose conversion factors were estimated to be 1.9 mSv and 0.6 mSv, respectively, and 2.5 mSv in total.
210Pb and Major Ion Concentrations in Aerosols Collected in Qingdao, a Seaside Area of China
This study aimed at understanding the atmospheric concentrations of 210Pb and major ions in aerosols in Qingdao, China, including their seasonal variations and relationships with weather data and to identify the sources of atmospheric sulfur as a part of the Japan-China joint project, “Aeolian Dust Experiment on Climate Impact (ADEC)”. The sampling period was from beginning of May 2001 to beginning of March 2002; and a high air-volume sampler was used with a polyflon filter. Atmospheric concentrations of 210Pb ranged from 0.15±0.03 to 6.63±0.26 mBq m-3 with the mean (±S.D) of 0.93±0.21 mBq m-3 and they showed a clearly seasonal variation with high values in winter to spring and low values in summer to autumn, the lowest values were observed during the rainiest period. Total suspended particles (TSP) ranged from 27.17 to 289.43 μg m-3 with an average of 123.99 μg m-3 which exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline level for maximum annual exposure of 10 and 20 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and PM10 respectively. The concentrations of Cl–, NO3–, SO42- and NH4+ were high in winter and low in autumn. Mg2+ and Ca2+ concentrations did not show any seasonal variation. Ca2+ shown a strong correlation with TSP (r = 0.81, p<0.01) this revealed that soil particles were mainly the source of TSP. The strong correlation found (r = 0.76, p<0.01) between SO42- and 210Pb shown that they were originated mostly from anthropogenic activities the same conclusion was deducted based on the δ34S sulfate measurement results.
Preliminary Survey Measurements of Radon in Egyptian Dwellings by a Passive Technique Using LR-115 Detectors
In the present work, a set of indoor radon levels were measured in 45 dwellings in 15 selected cities of Egypt. Radon concentrations were determined using time-integrated radon dosimeters (closed and bare) containing LR-115 solid state nuclear track detectors. Measurements were carried out for one year to obtain an unbiased estimate of the annual average. The main objective of this study was to assess the health hazard due to the indoor radon. The results showed that the radon activity concentration varied from 20.6 to 42.1 Bq m-3, with an average value of 30.9±7.3 Bq m-3. These measured values are less than the recommended maximum value of 300 Bq m-3 for radiation protection of residents according to ICRP Publ. 126. Values of the indoor radon equilibrium factor F varied from 0.30 to 0.44, with an average value of 0.39 ± 0.03, which is almost equal to the value (0.40) proposed by UNSCEAR 2000 report. Calculated values of the indoor annual effective dose to residents in dwellings varied from 0.51 to 0.99 mSv, with an average value 0.75 ± 0.16 mSv. These values are lower the normal background level of 1.1 mSv y-1 quoted by UNSCEAR 2000 report and the recommended action level of 10 mSv y-1 as reported by ICRP Publ. 126. Thus, the present results have shown that radon concentration levels in the studied dwellings do not pose any significant health risk to occupants.
Contribution of Childhood Indoor Radon Exposure to Lung Cancer Incidence among Young Adults: A Population-Based Ecological Study in Canada
Exposure to indoor radon has been determined to be the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. Recently, it was shown that approximately 90% of Canadians’ exposure to radon comes from time spent indoors. Because this exposure effectively begins at birth, long before even young teens begin to smoke, we hypothesized that cumulative exposure to indoor radon during childhood could be a major leading cause of lung cancer among young adults. The population-based analysis presented confirms that lung cancer incidence among young adults is significantly correlated to indoor radon concentrations. Even though only limited data among young adults are available for the analysis and the uncertainty can be very large, the result indicates nevertheless cumulative exposure to indoor radon during childhood can be a major leading cause of lung cancer among young adults. In later adult life, the lung cancer incidence rate could be more strongly correlated to smoking rates than to radon exposure.
Study of Meteorological Influence on the Count of 222Rn and 220Rn Gases and Its Possibility for a Forecasting Gas
The study investigates the influence of meteorological factors on the count of 222Rn and 220Rn gases at the interest of observing them as a possible forecasting gas to geophysical phenomena. The study was carried out between May, 2018 and October, 2018 at the soil-air interface using a ZnS (Ag) scintillator counter (Model: SMARTRnDuo, BARC, India). Data’s were generated insitu online and was the first of its kind for the region. The backward multiple linear regression analysis shows that pressure was the most effecting variable on radon data, while no significant correlation was observed between thoron and meteorological data. The observed weak correlation between the isotope pair data and most of the meteorological factors reveals activeness of action taken against the factors, while acquiring data. Concentrations and fluxes of the isotope pair, content of 238U and 232Th and their comparison with the worldwide average were also presented. It is also observed that radon data of the continuous monitoring station (CMS) and Mat fault varies in proportion during geophysical process, while no geophysical properties of 220Rn were observed. The study reveals the reason behind radon anomaly was geophysical activity but not meteorological factors.
Radiation Safety and Public Health for Radiological Professionals: Meeting Report on The 5th Educational Symposium on Radiation and Health (ESRAH) by Young Scientists in 2018
The nuclear power plant accident on March 11 2011 in Fukushima prefecture in Japan greatly increased the interest in the effect of radioactivity and low-dose exposures on the environment and human beings. Our symposium “Educational Symposium on RADIATION AND HEALTH (ESRAH) by young scientists” has shifted more to providing information on radiation protection and inviting international researchers rather than basic radiation research. Since 2014, this symposium has provided an international forum for information exchange and discussions on a wide range of subjects related to radiation effects on the environment and the human body, radiation protection, radiation detection and emergency medical care. The 5th Symposium was held in Hokkaido University in 2018 under the theme of “Radiation Safety and Public Health for Radiological Professionals”. In this article, we summarize and review of the ESRAH2018.