Radiation Environment and Medicine (REM)

REM » Archives » REM Vol.8, No.1

Radiation Environment and Medicine Vol.8, No.1

  • Publisher : Hirosaki University Press
  • Language : English
  • ISSN : 2423-9097 (PRINT), 2432-163X (ONLINE)
  • Release : February 2019
  • Issue : Hirosaki University Press
  • pp. 1-38


Regular Article

Assessment of Safecast bGeigie Nano Monitor

  • Joshua Walsh*, Kevin Kelleher and Lorraine Currivan

  • Environmental Protection Agency, 3 Clonskeagh Square, Clonskeagh Road, Dublin 14, Ireland


    Radiat Environ Med (2019)8(1):1-8


The bGeigie Nano Monitor is a radiation monitor based on a Geiger Muller tube (GM) detector developed by the team at Safecast as an affordable and easy to use mobile radiation monitoring device for public use as part of its citizen science project. The bGeigie Nano Monitor is said to detect alpha, beta and measure gamma radiation accurately to within a 15% uncertainty, as well as the ability for this measured data to be uploaded to a Safecast API website. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bGeigie Nano Monitor’s accuracy and reliability in both measuring and recording radiation from alpha, beta and gamma sources.

It was found that the bGeigie Nano Monitor is very accurate in the dose rate range of 5-900 μSv/h. Above this dose rate the accuracy of the measurements were not as reliable as the monitor was brought closer to the 1000 μSv/h limit of detection. The monitor was capable of detecting beta and gamma radiation from the tested sources of 241Am, 90Sr/90Y and 137Cs. During the assessment of the monitor it was found that it could take up to a minute for the measured dose rate exposed to a source to stabilise, it was also found that after being exposed to a high dose rate it took up to a minute to return to background dose levels after the removal of the radiation source.

In conclusion, the bGeigie Nano Monitor is capable of being an easily assembled radiation monitor for the public to accurately measure the dose rates of radioactivity in their area and to share this monitoring data through the Safecast API website.

Key words: Safecast, radiation monitor, citizen science

Regular Article

Quantitative and Visual Image Quality Evaluation between CsI and Gd2O2S:Tb Scintillator Types of Irradiation Side Sampling Flat-Panel Detector Systems for Reduction of Radiation Exposure

  • Kohsei Kudo1*, Minoru Osanai1, Megumi Tsushima1, Junichi Hirota1, Yuhiko Otani2,

    Satoshi Naraki2, Katsumasa Suzaki2, Masahiko Aoki2, 3 and Yoichiro Hosokawa1

  • 1Department of Radiation Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Health Sciences,66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8564, Japan

    2Department of Radiology, Hirosaki University School of Medicine and Hospital, 53 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8563, Japan

    3Department of Radiology and Radiation Oncology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562, Japan


    Radiat Environ Med (2019)8(1):9-15



Flat-panel detector (FPD) systems have been widely used instead of computed radiography (CR) systems for radiation diagnosis. Indirect FPD systems have either CsI or Gd2O2S:Tb (GOS) types of scintillators. CsI FPDs can achieve comparable image quality whilst using lower dose imaging than GOS FPDs. Additionally, irradiation side sampling FPDs (ISS-FPDs) have better resolution characteristics than penetration side sampling FPDs (PSS-FPDs). In order to investigate exposure dose reduction, an analysis of both quantitative image quality metrics and visual evaluation of CsI and GOS ISS-FPDs was performed. Image quality was evaluated by detective quantum efficiencies and contrast-to-noise ratios, whilst visual evaluation was performed by inverse image quality figures (IQFinv) and area under the curves (AUCs) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The results suggest that CsI can produce comparable images to GOS with a dose reduction of 42-44% according to the image quality evaluation and 37-46% according to the visual evaluation.

Key words: flat-panel detector, CsI, Gd2O2S:Tb, reduction of radiation exposure, image quality


Survey on Training of the Nuclear Emergency Medical Assistance Team and Their Educational Needs

  • Takakiyo Tsujiguchi1, 2, Masaru Yamaguchi1, 2, Junko Mikami2, 3, Daishi Sato2, 3, Chieko Itaki1, 2, Yoichiro Hosokawa1, 2 and Katsuhiro Ito2, 3*

  • 1Department of Radiation Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki 036-8564

    2Hirosaki University Center for Radiation Support and Safety, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki 036-8564

    3Advance Emergency and Critical Care Center, Hirosaki University Hospital, 5 Zaifu-cho Hirosaki 036-8562


    Radiat Environ Med (2019)8(1):16-20


Hirosaki University provides regular training to the Nuclear Emergency Medical Assistance Team (NEMAT), which is owned by a nuclear emergency core hospital since 2017. In this paper, we provide details of the NEMAT training that was held by Hirosaki University in March 2018, and discuss the satisfaction level and educational needs of the trainees who participated in the 2018 NEMAT training. After the training, which provides a combination of table-top lecture and practical training, we conducted a survey on the NEMAT training held by Hirosaki University. Out of 40 trainees, 33 (82.5%) stated that they were either “extremely satisfied” or “slightly satisfied” with the training program. Upon investigating the educational needs of the trainees, we found that many of them wanted insights on regulated science, such as “dispatch criteria of NEMAT” and preparation of radiation emergency medical manual at own hospital.” Based on these results, we suggested that the curriculum of the future training program should be developed after taking into account trainees’ comments.

Key words: radiation accidents, nuclear disaster, radiation emergency medicine, educational activity, nuclear emergency medicine assistance team


Study of Chemical Etching Conditions for Alpha-particle Detection and Visualization Using Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors

  • Ryohei Yamada1, 2, Taiki Odagiri3, Kazuki Iwaoka4, 5, Masahiro Hosoda1, 3 and Shinji Tokonami1, 4

  • 1Department of Radiation Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Health Sciences,

    66-1 Honcho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8564, Japan

    2Radiation Protection Department, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1194 Japan

    3Department of Radiological Technology, Hirosaki University School of Health Sciences, 66-1 Honcho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8564, Japan

    4Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Honcho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8564, Japan

    5Center for Radiation Protection Knowledge, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Institute for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555, Japan


    Radiat Environ Med (2019)8(1):21-25


We evaluate radon/thoron and its progeny concentration using passive-type monitors using CR-39 plates. After exposure, it is necessary to do chemical etching for CR-39 plates. In the present study, we considered shortening of chemical etching time for CR-39 and enlargement of the track diameter (i.e. etch pit diameter) aiming for introduction of automatic counting system in the future. Optimum conditions were determined by changing solution concentration, solution temperature and etching time. As a result, the optimized conditions (concentration, temperature and etching time) were determined to be 8 M NaOH solution, 75°C and 10 hours. This result of etching time showed that the chemical etching was completed in less than half of conventional etching time. Furthermore, it was suggested that shorter etching time would be possible if we do not consider the enlargement of conventional track diameter.

Key words: solid state nuclear track detector, chemical etching, condition optimization, etching time, solution concentration/temperature, track diameter


Fostering Nuclear Science in Schools through Innovative Approaches: IAEA Perspectives

  • Sunil Sabharwal1, * and Jane Gerardo-Abaya2

  • 1Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, P. O. Box. 100, Vienna International Centre, Wagramer Straße5,1400 Vienna, Austria

    2Division for Asia and the Pacific, Department of Technical Cooperation, International Atomic Energy Agency,P. O. Box. 100, Vienna International Centre, Wagramer Straße5,1400 Vienna, Austria


    Radiat Environ Med (2019)8(1):26-32


The industrial and economic growth involving nuclear science and technology (NST) necessitates an increase in the demand for human resource development in the nuclear sector. It is vital to enhance the understanding of students on NST to reach out to the next generation of scientists and engineers. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been strengthening the education of NST in secondary schools to support sustainability of applications of nuclear technology in member states. The implementation of the IAEA Technical Cooperation (TC) project RAS/0/065 during 2012-2016 provided valuable proficiency in successfully introducing NST in secondary schools in the Asia-Pacific region in selected pilot countries. The initiative between 2015-2016 trained 15 teachers through the IAEA fellowship program in turn trained over 1364 other teachers thus creating a critical mass of trained teachers in 4 pilot countries (Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and United Arab Emirates) reaching out to a total of 24,717 students in secondary schools in just over one year. The project led to development of education materials, hands-on exercises, as well as co-curricular activities which made nuclear concepts more interesting to students. Countries that implemented the activities have demonstrated the success that can be achieved by the partnership of two sectors – the nuclear sector providing the technical and scientific expertise and the educational sector ensuring the delivery of the topics in the classroom. Encouraged by the success achieved, a new TC project “Educating Secondary Students and Science Teachers on Nuclear Science and Technology, RAS0079” has been initiated in 2018 expanding the project to other member states in the Asia-pacific region. The details of these resources, the activities conducted and their impact as well as planned activities of the new project with a goal to reach one million students during the next four years are presented in this paper.

Key words: Human resource development, nuclear science and technology, NST education, education, secondary school education, WOW factor, cloud chamber, soft skills development


Synergy for Nuclear/Radiation Asian Teacher/Student Development: Experts Activities and Development for NS&T HRD Focusing on Secondary School Levels in Asia Pacific Region ― Case of Japan

  • Takeshi Iimoto1*, Tomohisa Kakefu2, Rieko Takaki3, Takehiro Toda4, Itaru Takahashi5,

    Genichiro Wakabayashi6, Hiroyuki Iizuka1, Kayo Makabe5 and Takayuki Koashi7

  • 1The University of Tokyo, 7–3–1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113–8654, Japan

    2Japan Science Foundation, 2-1, Kitanomaru-koen, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0091, Japan

    3Energy Communication Planning, 4-27-507, Onimaru-cho, Saga-shi, Saga 840-0021, Japan

    4RADO Co., ltd., 2-4-20, Motomachi, Toyama-shi, Toyama 903-0033, Japan

    5Japan Atomic Energy Relations Organization, 2-3-31, Shibaura, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0023, Japan

    6Kindai University, 3-4-1, Kowakae Higashiosaka-shi, Osaka 577-8502, Japan

    7The Japan Atomic Power Company, 1-1, Kanda-Mitoshiro-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0053, Japan


    Radiat Environ Med (2019)8(1):33-38